The cervical spine in your neck comprises of seven bones called vertebrae, which are separated by discs filled with a cushioning gel-like substance. Your cervical discs both stabilize your neck and allow it to turn smoothly from side to side and bend forward to back. The Vertebrae C3- C7 is designed for movement. Most of the actions like looking down, up, side bending, rotation occurs in these areas of the cervical spine.
Cervical disc herniation (disc bulging/ruptured disc) is a common disorder of the spine that can lead to neck and/or arm pain. The herniated disc or displaced disc can compress a nerve exiting the spine (branch of the spinal cord), the spinal cord itself or both. Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck and upper body pain. Pain may feel dull or sharp in the neck, between the shoulder blades, and may radiate (travel) downward into the arms, hands and fingers. Sensations of numbness and tingling are typical symptoms, and some patients report muscle spasms. Certain positions and movement can aggravate and intensify pain. Common levels of disc bulge occurs in C3-C4, C4-C5 C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels.
Cervical spondylosis is a common, age-related condition that affects the joints and discs in your cervical spine, which is in your neck. It’s also known as cervical osteoarthritis or neck arthritis. Normally, soft disks between your vertebrae provide cushioning. With cervical spondylosis, these disks become compressed. When this happens, the cartilage that lines the vertebrae on each side of the disc, where they touch, can wear away. Once this protective cartilage is gone, spurs may develop on your vertebrae and in facet joints where they rub together. Nerves attached to your spinal cord may have less room to pass between the vertebrae on their way out of the spine.
Chronic neck pain may be mostly caused due to Cervical disc prolapse. There are many conditions that may lead to Chronic neck pain like disc degeneration and osteoarthritis of the small joints in the neck- Just like the other joints in your body, your neck joints tend to wear down with age. Osteoarthritis causes the cushions (cartilage) between your bones (vertebrae) to deteriorate. Your body then forms bone spurs that affect joint motion and cause pain. Other reason may be due to acute muscle spasm, Inflammations due to injuries, disc bulge that can press on the spinal cord and nerves branching out from the spinal cord leading to neck pain and upper limb radiculopathy.
Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a neck condition that arises when the spinal cord becomes compressed or squeezed due to prolapsed disc or wear-and-tear changes that occur in the spine as we age. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy occurs in the cervical spine—the seven small vertebrae that form the neck. Any space occupying lesion within the cervical spine with the potential to compress the spinal cord can cause cervical myelopathy. Patients with CSM may experience symptoms like Tingling or numbness in the arms, fingers, or hands, Weakness in the muscles of the arms, shoulders, or hands. Trouble in grasping and holding , Imbalance and coordination problems, trouble in walking, Loss of fine motor skills like difficulty in writing, buttoning clothes and Pain or stiffness in the neck.
Cervical vertebral subluxation means a misalignment exists within the seven uppermost vertebrae of the spine. The cervical (upper) spinal region bears the weight of the head and is subject to a broad range of stress-inducing movement, it is particularly vulnerable to the development of issues. Causes of vertebral subluxation include road traffic accidents (RTA),Sports injuries, bad posture, sitting for long hours, improper lifting of heavy weight, overuse of cell phones.
Cervical radiculopathy is a disease process marked by nerve compression from herniated disk material or arthritic bone spurs. It's the damage or disturbance of nerve function that results if one of the nerve roots near the cervical vertebrae is compressed. Cervical radiculopathy occurs with pathologies that causes symptoms on the nerve roots. Those can be compression, irritation, traction, and a lesion on the nerve root caused by either a herniated disc, foraminal narrowing or degenerative spondylitic change (Osteoarthritic changed or degeneration) leading to stenosis of the intervertebral foramen.
Degeneration, arthritic changes, or general wear and tear over time.
Extension / backward motions can produce compression on the facet joints, which may lead to degenerative, and eventual arthritic changes.
Sudden fall or trauma, like a motor vehicle accident, can result in facet joint irritation, inducing wear and tear on joints.
Repetitive stress injuries, like lifting or carrying heavy loads, can cause facet joint irritation and degenerative joint disease.
Job Related - Bad posture, sitting for long hours
overuse of cell phones.
Frequent Two Wheeler Riding.
Symptoms can vary from mild to severe cases
Pain in the neck to the shoulder blade and arm.
Muscle spasm and changes in posture in response to the injury.
Numbness, tingling, or sharp pains in their arms, hands, or fingers.
Loss of motion like the inability to bend backward, sideways to the effected side, or turn the head, in addition to poor tolerance for sitting
Sitting, turning the head or looking overhead can be difficult if the degeneration is severe.
Loss of the normal cervical curvature